Welcome to Mrs. Detwiler's and Thyme's class!
7th Grade Reading Assessment Notes
Please study these periodically until State Assessments.
You’ll be glad you did!
Plot: is the sequence of events in a story.
Conflict: is a struggle between opposing sides or forces.
Climax: is the point at which the conflict is the greatest.
Resolution: is the outcome of the conflict.
Internal conflict: a conflict which occurs within a person. (EX: making a choice between right and wrong; when you can’t decide what to wear to school, etc).
External conflict: a struggle between two characters or a character and a force of nature or a character and an animal. (EX: two people fighting; being stranded in a blizzard, etc).
Suspense: is the quality of the story that makes you want to keep reading.
Point of View: refers to the angle or position from which the story is told.
1st person: one of the characters is telling the story like he/she is actively involved.
3rd person: action is observed through the eyes of only one character.
Omniscient: the all knowing vantage point.
Character traits: are the qualities that make people individuals or different from one another. (REMEMBER: these are the qualities that can’t be seen such as neat freaks, slobs, laziness, courageous, etc).
Motivation: the reason behind the actions.
Setting: is the time and place of a story.
Theme: is the truth about life revealed through literature. Also, the lesson in life the author is conveying. (REMEMBER: this must be expressed in at least one sentence—not in one word). (EX: the grass isn’t always greener on the other side of the fence; don’t put off until tomorrow what you can do today; never give up, etc).
Foreshadowing: clues that hint at what will happen later in the story.
Inference: is an educated guess, a conclusion that makes sense because it’s supported by evidence/facts.
Symbols: in literature are persons, places, or things that function as themselves but that can also stand for a larger idea such as love, glory, and honor.
Metaphor: a comparison of two different things by saying one is the other. (REMEMBER: metaphors do NOT use the words “like” or “as”). (EX: the hose is a serpent with its tail in the flower garden).
Onomatopoeia: the use of words whose sounds echo their meaning. (EX: quack, tlot-tlot, boom, etc).
Similes: the comparison of two unlike things using the words “like” or “as”. (EX: the bright light is like the sun burning against my closed eye lids.)
Cause: makes something happen. (Goes hand-in-hand with effect.) (EX: lots of rain caused flooding).
Effect: what happens as a result of some event. (Goes hand-in-hand with cause). (EX: an effect of the flooding was roads were washed away, houses/basements filled with water, people couldn’t get in or out of their homes, etc).
Figure of speech: a word or phrase that describes one thing in terms of something else and is not literally true. (EX: referring to a garden hose as being a snake.)
Personification: giving human or living qualities to nonhuman or nonliving things. (EX: animals talking in the movie “Homeward Bound”, “Beauty and the Beast” movie where dressers, candlesticks, brooms, tea pots and cups talk, walk, etc.).
Alliteration: is the repetition of consonant sounds in words that are close together. (EX: Silly Sally sat stupidly slurping soda).
Analogies: is a point-by-point comparison made between two things to show how they are alike. (EX: creeping is to slow as zooming is to fast).
Idioms: an expression that can not be translated literally. (EX: “by the skin of your teeth” means your barely did or achieved something and NOT that your teeth has skin; “don’t count your chickens before they’re hatched” means don’t count on having something before you actually have it).
Hyperbole: is an exaggeration, which often is meant to add humor. (EX: I’m so hungry I could eat a horse; He’s 900 years old!; I’ve told you a million time to stop exaggerating!”).
Compare: looking for ways that things are similar. (Goes hand-in-hand with contrast).
Contrast: looking for ways that things are different. (Goes hand-in-hand with compare).
Main idea: the most important point or focus of a story/passage.
Propaganda: is an organized attempt to influence a large audience of readers, listeners, or TV watchers.
Bandwagon approach: urges you to do or believe something because everyone else does.
Testimonial: uses a famous person, such as an actor or an athlete, to testify that he/she supports the issue or uses the product. (EX: Jessica Simpson doing a commercial for Pro Active.)
Stereotyping: refers to members of a group as if they were all the same. (EX: Teenagers are bad drivers.)
Name Calling: a technique to create fear and arouse prejudice by using negative words (bad names) to create an unfavorable opinion or hatred against a group, beliefs, ideas or institutions they would have us denounce. (EX: political candidates saying negative things about each other).
Glittering generalities: the use of vague, sweeping statements (often slogans or simple catch phrases) using language associated with values and beliefs deeply held by the audience w/o providing supporting information or reason.
Transfer: is a technique used to carry over the authority and approval of something we respect and revere (waving the flag, pictures of Bald Eagles) to something the propagandist would have us accept.
Plain Folks: an approach used to convince the audience that the spokesperson is from humble origins, someone they can trust and who has their interests at heart.
Card Stacking: a technique used to make the best case possible for his side and the worst for the opposing viewpoint by carefully using only those facts that support his side of the argument while attempting to lead the audience into accepting the facts as a conclusion.
Citing Statistics: using/quoting number from things like polls to prove a fact.
Narrative reading/writing: is simply the telling of a story.
Expository reading/writing: is to inform, to give facts, to give directions, to explain, or to define.
Persuasive reading/writing: is getting other people to see things your way.
Technical reading/writing: is following or writing instructions. (EX: how to bake a cake, how to build a computer desk, how to play a video game, etc.).
Author’s purpose: the reason(s) an author has for writing a particular work. Is it to entertain, inform, persuade.
PREFIXES, SUFFIXES, AND ROOT WORDS
1. a – not; without
2. be – thoroughly
3. mid – middle
4. post – after
5. semi – half
6. super – above
7) ant/ent – one who does something
8. ess – female
9. ism – the belief in something
10. ist – one who believes in something
11. aero – air; atmosphere 20. meter – measure
12. aqua – water 21. Micro – small
13. biblio – book 22. Migr – to move; travel
14. bio – life 23. Mim – copy; imitate
15. chron – time 24. Mort – death
16. dem – people 25. Phon – sound
17. geo – earth 26. Photo – light
18. graph – write 27. Script/scrib – to write
19. hemi – half 28. Tele – distance; from afar
29. test – to witness; affirm